عنوان مقاله [English]
Ash'arites believe in some Qualities being additional to the Essence. Mu'tazilites, however, have negated qualities and known them to be replaced by essence ; and Shi'ites have taken a middle position on the ground, i.e. the unity and sameness of qualities and essence. Mulla Sadra intending to rectify the two mentioned views and using the principle of: the thing of simple reality ( basitulhaqiqa ), has successfully proved the uniqueness of qualities and essence. In this view, the Qualities of God are in reality the same as His Essence and one with each other. However, the difference observed between the Essence and the Qualities and at the same time between the Qualities themselves, is only on the plane of concepts.
Mu'tazilites, like Shi'ites, has regarded the Quality of power to be the fundamental principle for other Qualities, including Knowledge and Life. Ash'arites, however, have taken the Quality of Life as fundamental principle on which the Qualities of Power, Knowledge and Will are based. There can be found little difference among various Islamic sects on the Essence of God. All sects know the Divine Essence to be Everlasting, Self-sufficient, Omniscient and Omnipotent. Yet on the unity of Qualities the views are different; Ash'arites argue for the multiplicity of Qualities; but Mu'tazilites have viewed them to be one and the same reality.
Ash'arites have understood the Quality of Will as a quality of Essence absolutely; Mu'tazilites being influenced by the formal meanings of some traditions, however, have considered it as a Quality of Action. The view of Shi'ites here is also in a middle state; in an exact survey, they have regarded it from two respects: when intended as loving to the Essence it surely is a Quality of Essence but when the meaning of decision is meant by it, it is a Quality of Action.
Again Mu'tazilites and some of Shi'ite theologians have known the Quality of Speech ( Kalam ), meaning creating speech or ability for speech, a Quality of Essence. But Ash'arites have counted it as a meaning established in the Divine Essence and called Speech to the Self, namely something referred to by verbal speech. And for the sages all the universe, consisting of materials and immaterials, is His Speech.